The urbanisation in India is on the rise, people from the rural areas migrate for livelihood to the urban areas. Due to the spurt in the urban population, the transport system in many of the metro and tier-1 cities are constantly under pressure. The supply side of the transport infrastructure is hardly matching the ever rising demand in the urban areas. Traffic congestion and pollution has become the norm. The existing public transport system comprising suburban rail, buses, and rickshaws are hardly enough to satisfy the requirement of the urban folks. and becomes the norm. The metro rail system in the last couple of years is able to provide alternative mode of public transportation and has the potential to bring down the private vehicles on the roads. Sandeep Sharma takes a look at the Metro rail sector in India…
METRO RAIL NETWORK EXPANSION
The metro rail project envisages building of an efficient rail based transportation system for the city, catering to the growing population. With high growth in transport demand, congestion on roads has been increasing and the mode of travel in favor of public transportation has to increase. The metro rail system provides the speed, comfort and convenience to the urban dwellers. Currently, about 536 km of Metro is operational in 10 cities that include Delhi-NCR, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Chennai, Jaipur, Kochi, Lucknow, Mumbai and Gurugram. In the year 2018 approximately 110 km of metro rail lines have been commissioned in Delhi-NCR, Hyderabad and Chennai. Three new projects with a length of about 66 km have been approved for Bhopal, Indore and Delhi Metro Extension from Noida City Centre to Noida Sector 62 at a cost of Rs 16,408 crore.
METRO RAIL PROJECTS UPDATE
Some of the ongoing and planned metro projects include the following:
DELHI METRO PROJECT PHASE-III
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) had signed an agreement with the Government of India in October 2018 to provide Official Development Assistance (ODA) Loan of 53,675 million Japanese Yen (approximately INR 3,300 crore) for the ‘Delhi Mass Rapid Transport System Project Phase 3 (Tranche III)'. The scope of the Phase 3 includes the construction of Pink Line and Magenta Line and the extension of Yellow Line, Blue Line, Green Line and Violet Line. The Phase 3 will add 159.7 kilometers to the existing Delhi Metro Line and will connect 109 metro stations. JICA has extended a cumulative total of 705,206 million Japanese Yen (approximately 45,000 crore) in ODA loans for the Delhi Mass Rapid Transport System Project since 1997. With the signing of the loan agreement for Delhi Metro Project Phase 3, the cumulative loan amount provided by JICA for Metro projects in India (including Delhi, Bengaluru, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and Ahmedabad Metro) exceeds 1.2 trillion Japanese Yen (approximately 77,000 crore).
The 9.7-km Lajpat Nagar-Mayur Vihar Pocket 1 corridor of the Delhi Metro's Pink Line was recently inaugurated. The corridor has five stations located at Lajpat Nagar, Vinobapuri, Ashram, Hazrat Nizamuddin, Mayur Vihar Ph-I and Mayur Vihar Pocket-1. The 1.4-km stretch between Mayur Vihar Pocket-1 and Trilokpuri Sanjay Lake stations of the Pink Line is yet to be linked.
The Blue Line extension from Noida Sector 34 to Electronic City is expected to be operational soon. The elevated stretch will have six metro stations - Noida Sector 34, Noida Sector 52, Noida Sector 61, Noida Sector 59, Noida Sector 62 and Noida Electronic City. The Aqua Line connecting Noida to Greater Noida will have 21 stations and cover over 29.7 km. Noida Metro Rail Corporation (NMRC) had earlier received a go-ahead from the Commissioner of Metro Rail Safety for its operations. The Noida-Greater Noida connector will be ready within a month.
METRO CORRIDORS IN U.P.
After the success of Lucknow Metro, the Government of Uttar Pradesh has decided to start metro services in Agra, Kanpur and Meerut cities by 2024 at an estimated cost of Rs.50,000 crore. The Kanpur metro rail project covering 30-km with 31 stations will cost over Rs 17,000 crore. The metro project in Meerut city will cover 33-km and cost more than Rs 13,800 crore. The state government plans to construct two metro corridors in Agra at an estimated cost of Rs.13,000 crore.
The Public Investment Board (PIB) has recently approved the 9.41-km Metro extension project in Ghaziabad. The project, which will connect the Rithala-Dilshad Garden Line to Ghaziabad’s New Bus Stand, is in the trial run stage. The 9.41-km Metro network will have stations at Shaheed Nagar, Raj Bagh, Rajendra Nagar, Shyam Park, Mohan Nagar, Arthala, Hindon River and New Bus-Stand. The revised completion cost of the project is close to Rs 1,805 crore, instead of the earlier estimated cost of Rs 2,210 crore. The work is progressing well, ticket counter is in place, escalators and lifts have been installed, and foot overbridge is being constructed. The emergency exits are not yet constructed. The project is estimated to complete in two months.
CHENNAI METRO PROJECT
The Chennai Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Chennai Metro Rail Ltd (CMRL) is the executing agency of the Project. The Phase-I of the project is partly operational since 2015. The network consists of the Blue Line and the Green Line covering a length of 35-km. The Blue line runs between Wimco Nagar and the Chennai International Airport while the Green line connects Chennai Central with St. Thomas Mount. The Chennai Metro rail corridor between AG-DMS and Washermenpet will be open for public in a month or two. The remaining 9-km stretch in the last stretch of the first phase between Washermenpet and Wimco Nagar will be operational by June 2020.
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has signed an agreement with the Government of India in December 2018 to provide Official Development Assistance (ODA) loan of approximately Rs 4,300 crore for Chennai Metro Project (Phase 2) (I). The objective of the Project is to help mitigate traffic on roads in Chennai Metropolitan Area. It will reduce road accidents and vehicular pollution, and will lead to the balanced socio-economic development in Chennai by enhancing the city's transport system. The JICA-supported Chennai Metro (Phase 2) Project will further expand the existing metro rail network with additional 52.0 km, covering the construction of Corridor 3 from Madhavaram Milk Colony to Sholinganallur, and Corridor 5 from Madhavaram Milk Colony to Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus.
BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT
Namma Metro, also known as Bengaluru Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Bengaluru, India. It is the third longest operational metro network in India after the Delhi Metro and Hyderabad Metro as of October 2018. Some of the key facts about the metro network includes: 1) Operational: 42.30 km 2) Under Construction: 60.03 km 3) On Hold: 13.92 km 4) Approved: 49.07 km and 5) Proposed (Phase-III): 105.55 km. The construction work on the Phase-II had started in September 2015 covering 73.95 km from Mysore Road – Pattanagere, Reach-2A of Purple Line. Due to funding issues, the civil construction contracts were awarded in the first half of 2017. The Purple line extension to Challeghata and Green line extension to Anjanapura Township is targeted to be operational by 2020.
Another 105.55 km of metro rail corridor is proposed as part of Phase 3, of which 19 km metro rail corridor between Central Silk Board – KR Puram and 29 km corridor between Nagawara – KIAL Airport have been expedited and will be built in parallel with Phase 2 under Phase 2A and Phase 2B.The Karnataka cabinet has recently approved the proposal to change the alignment of Metro Rail from KR Puram to the Kempegowda International Airport. Due to this the overall length will increase by another eight km. The new alignment for the metro rail would begin from KR Puram, via Hebbal Nagawara and then to the KIA. The change in alignment would increase the length of Metro Rail from KR Puram to KIA from 29.8 km to 38 km. Accordingly, the overall cost will go up from Rs 5,950 crore to Rs 10,584 crore
DPR FOR METRO LINE BETWEEN MIRA-BHAYANDER AND VIRAR
Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) has decided to connect Mumbai and Virar with a Metro line. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) will prepare a detailed project report (DPR) for a Metro line between Mira-Bhayander and Virar. The Government of Maharashtra has already approved the construction of a 10.5-km Dahisar-Mira-Bhayander (Metro 9) corridor in September 2018.
MUMBAI METRO CORRIDORS
Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation (MMRC) is implementing the fully underground Mumbai Metro-3 corridor covering 33.5-km from Colaba-Bandra-Seepz. The first tunnel was completed in September 2018 and the second one is likely to complete soon. MMRC is expecting 80% of the tunneling work by December 2019. The line will be partly operational starting 2021.
The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) is aiming at completing the construction of two Metro lines — Metro 2A and Metro 7 in 2019. Mumbai Metro Line 7 comprises the construction of metro corridor from Andheri (E) to Dahisar (E). The corridor will have 13 stations covering 16.475-km. The project is estimated to cost Rs 6208 crore. The completion is targeted in 2019. Mumbai Metro Line-2A is an elevated corridor coming up between Dahisar West to Andheri West covering 18.6-km. The estimated cost of the project is Rs 6,410 crore and completion is targeted in 2019.
The MMRDA is coming up with Mumbai Metro Line-5 corridor covering 23.50 km Line, connecting Thane – Bhiwandi – Kalyan. The Metro line 5 of the Mumbai Metro, also referred to as the Thane-Bhiwandi-Kalyan corridor will be fully elevated. The corridor will have 17 stations and is estimated to cost Rs. 8,416 crore. The stations include Kapurbawdi in Thane (West), Balkum Naka, Kasheli, Kalher, Purna, Anjur Phata, Dhamankar Naka, Bhiwandi, Gopal Nagar, Temghar, Rajnouli Village, Govegaon MIDC, Kongaon, Durgadi Fort, Sahajanand Chowk,Kalyan Railway Station. The project was approved by the state government in October 2017.
PUNE METRO RAIL PROJECT
The Pune Metro rail project is being implemented by Maharashtra Metro Rail Corporation Ltd (Maha Metro). The first line of the Pune Metro corridor will run from Pimpri-Chinchwad to Swargate covering distance of 16.589 KM with 5 underground stations and 9 elevated stations. The first Metro station will be built at Sant Tukaramnagar in Pimpri. The station would have two levels. First level will have a foot over bridge (FOB), while the station platform will be built on the second level. In all Six Metro stations will come up in Pimpri Chinchwad region. The project is estimated to cost Rs 7,628 crore and estimated to complete by 2021.The second line is an elevated corridor covering 14.66 km which starts from Vanaz and ends at Ramwadi. This line will have 16 stations. The project is estimated Rs 3,894 crore is scheduled for completion in 2020.The third line is an elevated corridor that would link Hinjewadi to Shivajinagar in central Pune covering 23.30 km in length. The work on the first and second line is underway. The work on the third line will commence by June 2019 and targeted to complete in three years. A consortium of Tata Realty and Infrastructure Urban Transport and Siemens Project Ventures GmbH has bagged the contract for the third line.
INDORE METRO RAIL PROJECT
The Centre has approved the implementation of Indore Metro Rail Project in October 2018. The project comprises Ring Line of length 31.55 Km from Bengali Square - Vijay Nagar - Bhawarsala - Airport - Patasia - Bengali Square which will connect major public nodes and city cluster areas of Indore. Madhya Pradesh Metro Rail Co Ltd. (MPMRCL) has been constituted for implementation of the Project. M/s DB Engineering & Consulting GmbH in consortium with M/s Louis Berger SAS and M/s Geodata Engineering S.p.A has been appointed as General Consultant (GC) for Indore Metro Rail Project.
LUCKNOW METRO PROJECT
Lucknow Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Lucknow in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Lucknow Metro is the fastest built metro in the country. The project is being implemented by Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation (LMRC), a joint venture of Government of India and Government of Uttar Pradesh. The 8.5 km stretch from Transport Nagar to Charbagh Railway Station was operationalised on 5 September 2017. LMRC has successfully commenced the signaling & integrated testing trials by moving the Metro train between Transport Nagar Metro station and Chaudhary Charan Singh Metro station. With this milestone, Lucknow Metro is now inching closer towards commissioning of the whole 22.878 km long North-South Corridor (Phase 1A) from CCS Airport to Munshipulia. The Metro work is likely to be completed by February 2019.
The Hyderabad Metro is a rapid transit system, serving the city of Hyderabad, Telangana. The project is being implemented on a PPP mode. The metro network is partly operational. A 30 km stretch from Miyapur to Nagole, having 24 stations commenced operations on 28 November 2017. The project is estimated to cost Rs 18,800 crore. The Phase I of the project includes 3 lines covering a distance of around 72 km. Line 1 - Red Line starts from Miyapur and ends at LB Nagar covering 29.2 km, Line 2 - Green Line starts from JBS and ends at Falaknuma covering 15 km and Line 3 - Blue Line starts from Nagole and ends at Raidurg covering 28 km.
The Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation has released funds to various Metro Rail Projects to the tune of Rs. 9,286.09 crore in 2015-16, Rs. 15,298.61 crore in 2016-17, Rs. 13,956.23 crore in 2017-18 and Rs. 7,481.28 crore in 2018-19 (upto September 30, 2018).
NEW METRO POLICY 2017
The new metro policy launched in 2017 provides a booster to the private sector investment in the metro rail network development in India. The private investments can be made across a range of metro operations making PPP component mandatory for availing central assistance for new metro projects. The new Metro Rail Policy provides for rigorous assessment of new metro proposals and proposes an independent third party assessment by agencies to be identified by the Government like the Institute of Urban Transport and other such Centres of Excellence whose capacities would be augmented, as required in this regard. The State Governments/Union Territories have been advised to prepare the Detailed Project Report (DPR) in line with the provisions in the Metro Rail Policy 2017. The policy helps to bridge the gap for ascertaining and enhancing the feasibility of metro rail projects from economic, social and environmental perspective. The policy focus is on systematic planning and implementation of metro rail systems. The policy serves as a guide to state governments for preparing comprehensive proposals for metro rail projects.
PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION
The New Metro Rail Policy 2017 encourages private sector participation in metro rail projects. The private sector participation either for complete provision of metro rail or for some unbundled components like Automatic Fare Collection, Operation & Maintenance of services etc, is a mandatory requirement for all metro rail projects seeking central financial assistance. Following the guidelines of the new metro policy 2017 pertaining to private sector participation. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) plans to outsource the running of Red and Yellow line. The train operator job will be outsourced to the private sector players. The private entities will execute the job under DMRC supervision and training. Once the tender is finalised, the service provider will recruit the required staff and training will be provided by DMRC. The operations will be monitored through regular inspection and auditing of key performance indicators.
WAY FORWARD In 1984, the country’s first metro rail system was launched in Kolkata, Delhi was the second city to have metro rail in 2002. India now has ten metro rail network that are operational. In the years to come, with the rapid industrialisation and the need for robust public transportation system, more and more cities are likely to adopt the metro rail transit systems. The potential is huge for the private sector to participate along with their public sector counterparts. The people are ultimately going to benefit in terms of saving on fuel as they shift from their private vehicles to metro rail transportation systems. It’s likely to bring down the city pollution levels to a great extent. The metro corridors are likely to become the economic corridors sooner or later.